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Missions 101

Posts Tagged: Culture

Language Learning and Mission Work

Jan. 13, 2015By: Philemon YongAuthor Bio

I’d like to reflect on language learning, culture, and effectiveness on the mission field. This is intended not for short-term mission teams, but for long-term commitments that require preparatory language learning.

Every missionary making a long-term commitment to cross-cultural missions will say that he or she wants to be effective in the target people group. There is no objection to wanting to fit in, identify with the people and their needs, and understand their culture, and thus minister in a way that will impact lives. There is no disagreement on these matters. The challenge comes in the area of methodology. What is the most effective way to prepare, in order to be practically effective? learnsecondlanguage

Mission organizations, upon sending missionaries to an area that speaks a different language, send them first to language school. For example, missionaries going to French-speaking African countries are sent either to France or Canada for a year of French studies. The rationale for this approach is that they want their missionaries to arrive in their new setting ready to go and ready to communicate with the people, thus finding it easy to fit in, adapt, and be more effective in ministry. Yet, this could be misleading for several reasons.  Two questions come to mind.

  1. Location. Where is the best place to do the language learning? Interestingly, French in France comes with the French culture and accent attached. It is the same with learning French in Canada. How does that affect the work of a missionary in a francophone African country, which has its own accent and culture attached to the use of the French language?
  2. Duration. Is one year adequate for effective grasp of the language? At the most, one year gives one the basics.  The missionary needs to grow in the use of the language, as well as understanding the local idioms.

I want to affirm the wisdom of learning a language in preparation for ministry in a particular location. The importance of this approach cannot be overstated. It is very helpful to arrive at a location knowing how to address people and express yourself to them. So, this is good. At the same time, I do propose the following:

While language learning is critical, the place of learning the language should be chosen with careful thought. If one is going to work in an African context, it would be best to seek to learn the language on site. (There are benefits to this that will be stated later). So, rather than going to Canada or France to study French prior to working in Congo or Burundi or Cameroon, it would be preferable to spend that language learning time on site.

Why? Reasons abound. It’s cost effective, it helps local teachers economically etc. but I want to expand on just a few:

  1. Language learning on location will help the missionary make a quicker and more effective adaptation to the culture. The fact is that when one is learning a language, included is the culture of the country in which the language is being studied. Culture-specific stories, touristic sites, entertainment places, names of stores and other illustrative examples will be culture specific. A person learning how to order from a menu in a restaurant in Paris will be at a loss in an African village where there are no menus and where you have to bargain in the open market place. But, if the language learning occurred in the area of ministry, the culturally specific issues needing to be addressed and gotten used to in ministry would be treated in the course of language learning. This is beneficial.
  2. To be understood properly, you need to speak in a way that is very close to the way the nationals speak. This is true even with the English language.  If you speak American English in a former British colony, it is difficult to be understood. As an international student studying in the USA, my pronunciation was often corrected. It wasn’t easy, but I needed to learn how Americans pronounce words, and adapt. Learning language on location helps remove this possible hindrance by fine tuning the dialect. 
  3. Cultural effectiveness. Studying French in France will not prepare a missionary for the local customs of the people he will be serving. As a result, one ends up spending time in language studies and then more time on location adjusting the language and learning the local customs. For example, it is improper for a young person to cross the legs or wear a baseball cap in the presence of older persons in some Cameroonian villages. Since crossing the legs is a common American habit, the missionary has to unlearn it. When learning language in the Cameroonian context, these customs become a natural part of the lesson as you interact with people and practice the language.
  4. In terms of duration of language studies, one year cannot possibly be adequate, but for a long period of time will disrupt the vision for mission work. Rather than giving a year for language studies, why not make it a life long process? The first year of ministry can be specifically for language learning. The second year continue language learning 50% of the time and then begin to get your feet wet in the ministry context. By the third year, 30% language learning and more ministry work. This provides more benefits than learning the language at a remote location.

Language learning is a must for mission work. Yet, the location matters and duration matters as well. 

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On Adrian Peterson, Spanking and Public Morality

Sep. 22, 2014By: Darren CarlsonAuthor Bio

To be a fan of MN sports is to endure torture. We are considered the state of hockey - yet Texas took away our professional hockey team. The baseball team was good for a few years in the 2000s, but never won a playoff game. The basketball team has the longest playoff drought in the league and was run by probably the worst General Manager in history until he was fired last year. And our dear football team, when we were good, were knifed in the heart by our long-time arch rival quarterback Brett Farve, who quarterbacked our team to the NFC championship game. Such is life.

And now the second most liked sports figure (behind Joe Mauer) in Minnesota is in trouble. By now you have heard the story and seen the pictures. Earlier this year Adrianne Peterson, the best running back in the NFL, put leaves in the mouth of his four year old son and spanked him with a stick to the point that it left welts and caused him to bleed. I won’t link to the pictures that were illegally obtained and posted online, but you caimagesn see it for yourself by searching online.

Leave it to sports to drive a conversation on what a culture deems as appropriate. The NFL has had a tough few weeks with multiple domestic assault charges leveled against high profile players. While I want to focus on the issue here in MN, I would be remiss to not at least note the backdrop of what has been happening the last few weeks.

The Reaction

Minnesota radio has been on fire. Some people think he is a child abuser and claim they will never root for the Vikings again. On the flip side are people who think he did nothing wrong. Charles Barkley argued that all parents in the south would have to be arrested if what Peterson did was wrong. Articles noted that Peterson was just doing what was done to him and his mother was appalled that people thought the kind of corporal punishment he dished out was wrong. His HS football coach reported that he spanked Peterson with a wooden paddle. Some of Peterson’s teammates didn’t see a problem with what he did either. I think I have heard “Well, that’s what my parents did to me…” more times than I can count. The grand jury even had a hard time as they didn’t indict him the first time the prosecutor brought the case to them.

Some of the divide is racial, though I think one generation ago one could probably not make the same distinction. My God-fearing Swedish farming grandfather disciplined his kids with a belt and left some marks on his boys they still don’t forget. Some of his sons did the same for their children. It never crossed anyone’s mind as abuse. But it seems today that views of the appropriateness of spanking has splintered, with the majority of the northern white liberal elite decrying it as abuse, while white conservatives see some merit in spanking. I won’t speak for the African -American community, but many (not all!) seem comfortable with what Peterson did. The liberals say (as always) that we are a more advanced society now and have moved to better forms of discipline. The point is not to debate, but just to note how divided the country is on this issue.

Is This Really About Spanking?

We need to be careful when we equate what Peterson did with spanking. In response to the situation, one writer blamed evangelical Christians for spanking still being legal in the US. Andy Naselli has done a good job summarizing what Scripture teaches here. I’m not going to repeat what he says. I just want to add that we can’t just quote Proverbs 13:24 as if it were the law and binding on all Christians in all situations. Discipline at a basic level is done in the context of love. It seems unwise to me that Peterson would be spanking a child that does not live with him over what was a minor violation. That comes across as power and control and a very short fuse. Think of what it must be like to be a child of a dad who is not around, has multiple kids with multiple women and then shows up and spanks me so hard with a stick that I have welts and bleed. How is a four year old even to know what his father expects from him? I will not be surprised if more information leaks out that he has spanked all of his kids this way. How much money do you think TMZ will offer the mother’s of all of his kids to tell them stories that will bring them headlines?

Public Morality Has Its Limits

Adrian Peterson is a Christian in the ilk of Joyce Meyers and TD Jakes - many football players are. God has been on his lips for many years, but his faith didn’t stop him from having a number of children with different women and having sex with countless others. He recently spoke of his past indiscretions as something he has repented of, acknowledging his lifestyle as wrong. I am happy for him.

He is not the only athlete who has had a lot of sex with different women out of marriage. Football and basketball are highly sexualized sports. There are plenty of NBA stars who are adulterers. Wilt Chamblerlin claimed he had sex with 20,000 women. NFL star Antonio Cromartie has 7 kids with 6 women. They are not alone. It’s not that every athlete is a serial sex addict, but these types of lifestyles have consequences. At the end of his life Chamberlin lamented: “With all of you men out there who think that having a thousand different ladies is pretty cool, I have learned in my life I've found out that having one woman a thousand different times is much more satisfying.”

While the issue of spanking a child has brought out the knives from many reporters and media personalities, Peterson’s other lifestyle choices didn’t knock him off the pedestal of hero or model citizen. Our culture is completely tuned in to the wrongness of men hitting women or children. But that is where the moral compass ends. Our culture still sees differences in men and women when it comes to physical attack, but has blurred the line in just about every other area of life. Surveying news sites (including the beloved conservative Foxnews) that are covering the story, you will find links to soft porn images everywhere. The topics trending on popular search engines was Peterson, a video of some cat and Kim Kardashian….down the list was ISIS killing of some Christians. We are a fickle society. The outrage won’t last any longer than it takes to click to the next news story.

Compassion for Adrian Peterson

I think Adrian Peterson made a mistake. He knew he went too far almost immediately and texted the boy's mother that he had gone overboard in his own mind. Have any other well-meaning parents done that? You would probably say yes, though not to the point a leaving marks on the body. Then again - some think marking up your child is appropriate.

Adrian Peterson has probably never been told by anyone how to discipline a child outside what his parents and community taught him. While his father probably didn’t have a grip that could break a hand or the strength his son has, Peterson’s family disciplined him with a stick or belt, sometimes publically, when he was out of line and Peterson is thankful. It never crossed his mind he was doing something illegal. This is the experience of many people, which is why it’s difficult to pronounce a clear guilty verdict.

Should I vilify him for what he has done? If I show any kind of support for him do I then hate children? I think we will wait and see. If he is smart he will soon become a spokesman against child abuse, think through his authority as a father when he is not around and will continue to live within the confines of marriage. He won’t do this to please the detractors, because he will never be able to. He’ll do it because of the man he says he believes in, abounding in patience and loving-kindness, to him and his children.

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Use of Time - Arab vs. American Time

Aug. 27, 2014By: Darren CarlsonAuthor Bio

From Paul Hiebert:


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Pro-Life Christian: Dump Some Ice Water on Your Head but Be Careful Where Your Money Goes

Aug. 22, 2014By: Darren CarlsonAuthor Bio

The ALS ice-bucket challenge has taken the internet by storm. Most now agree it was started by Chris Kennedy, a professional golfer who took the challenge from a friend but then recorded a video, calling on three others to do it or donate. What started as an either/or proposition has turned into a both/and. People are dunking themselves – former Presidents, movie stars, sports teams and just about everyone I know on Facebook. Still waiting for some well-known preachers to join in….

Amytrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), more widely known as Lou Gehrig’s disease affects everything from speaking to movement. My good friend’s mom died in 2008 of ALS. I watched her from beginning to end. She was a woman of great faith and her family and friends loved her to the end. It was terrible. Your body just slowly becomes unusable. It’s a slow death.  There are not too many words to share except to sit there with them and be with them through it. Right now 30,000 Americans suffer from it and countless more are impacted. It worthy of our attention. 

The ice bucket challenge has reportedly raised $40M. The ALS foundation received $19.4M last year, but in one month they have doubled last year’s total! It’s not just about the money either – there is new awareness, which could lead to more grants, more public sympathy and more government aid.

I will never donate to the ALS Association. Don’t get me wrong. I think ALS is terrible. The ice-bucket challenge has been a clever way of raising awareness. However, the ALS association, amongst the many other things it does, supports embryonic stem cell research. To support them would be like asking me to support Planned Parenthood, who provides many good services, but also helps women kill their unborn child.

Just by example, the ALS association gave a $500,000 grant that involved “stem cells…from the spinal cord of a single fetus electively aborted after 8 weeks gestation.” This was a child that had fingers, toes and a heart beat. You can read more about their view of stem cells here.

My point is not to win anyone over to the pro-life side, but instead that for those of you taking up the challenge and donating, you might want to consider a place like Team Gleason to send your money. Then, you will not only be participating in a great cause, but giving to a non-profit that doesn't operate against your convictions. 

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Trends for 2014

Jan. 7, 2014By: Darren CarlsonAuthor Bio

Don Sweeting, President of RTS Orlando has listed trends he sees in faith, the nation, world and give us some important dates to note.

His list of faith trends in our culture:

  • Faith makes a hit at the movies: This Spring movies like Noah, Heaven is for Real, Son of God and Mary of Nazareth are released, but, as always, amidst a mountain of cultural slush like Godzilla and Fifty Shades of Grey.
  • Mega church pastor angst: Younger leaders worry about the role of mega church pastors, given all the recent transitions, scandals and crashes. They wonder what the “one great leader” model does to a person/church and how it can be improved.
  • Low pastor esteem: Trust in clergy reaches record lows, according to a recent Gallup Poll. The overall trend for clergy has sloped downward since 2001, a contrast to 30 years ago when community and congregation held pastors in higher esteem. Trust, integrity and honesty are issues.
  • Pope Francis is held up as religious model:   As TIME’s man of the year, Francis’ influence and example are being promoted both within and outside the Roman Catholic Church.
  • America “the hardest mission field”: That’s what some are saying. In our post-Christendom era of material abundance, outreach is a big challenge. There are numerous barriers to deal with before many people will set foot in a church.
  • Growth of multiple venues in one church: More churches are experimenting with multiple venues and campuses.
  • The issue of leadership: The Economist writes, “in 2014, the world will crave leadership!” Demands and expectations of pastors are higher than they were 25 years ago. Churches are looking for pastors that can preach and lead. More smaller churches are hiring executive pastors.




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